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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Husein Khimjee earned his doctorate at the University of The Attributes of God in the Monotheistic Faiths of Judeo-Christian and Islamic Traditions. - Kindle edition by Husein Khimjee. Religion.
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- Issues in Jewish Ethics: Ethical Monotheism
In their encounter with the great civilizations, from ancient Babylonia and Egypt to Western Christendom and modern secular culture, they have assimilated foreign elements and integrated them into their own social and religious systems, thus maintaining an unbroken religious and cultural tradition. Furthermore, each period of Jewish history has left behind it a specific element of a Judaic heritage that continued to influence subsequent developments, so that the total Jewish heritage at any given time is a combination of all these successive elements along with whatever adjustments and accretions have occurred in each new age.
The various teachings of Judaism have often been regarded as specifications of the central idea of monotheism. One God, the creator of the world, has freely elected the Jewish people for a unique covenantal relationship with himself. This one and only God has been affirmed by virtually all professing Jews in a variety of ways throughout the ages.
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Jewish monotheism has had both universalistic and particularistic features. Along universal lines, it has affirmed a God who created and rules the entire world and who at the end of history will redeem all Israel the classical name for the Jewish people , all humankind, and indeed the whole world. The ultimate goal of all nature and history is an unending reign of cosmic intimacy with God, entailing universal justice and peace. This arrangement is designated a covenant and is structured by an elaborate and intricate law.
Thus, the Jewish people are both entitled to special privileges and burdened with special responsibilities from God. The universal goal of the Jewish people has frequently expressed itself in messianism —the idea of a universal, political realm of justice and peace. In one form or another, messianism has permeated Jewish thinking and action throughout the ages, and it has strongly influenced the outlook of many secular-minded Jews see also eschatology. Law embraces practically all domains of Jewish life, and it became the principle means by which Judaism was to bring about the reign of God on earth.
It is a total guide to religious and ethical conduct, involving ritualistic observance as well as individual and social ethics. It is a liturgical and ethical way constantly expatiated on by the prophets and priests, by rabbinic sages, and by philosophers. Such conduct was to be performed in the service of God, the transcendent and immanent ruler of the universe, the Creator and the propelling force of nature, and the one giving guidance and purpose to history.
According to Judaic belief, this divine guidance is manifested through the history of the Jewish people, which will culminate in the messianic age. The division of the millennia of Jewish history into periods is a procedure frequently dependent on philosophical predilections. This formulation could be theologically reconciled with the assumption that Christianity had been preordained even before the creation of the world.
In the 19th century, biblical scholars moved the decisive division back to the period of the Babylonian Exile and the restoration of the Jews to the kingdom of Judah 6th—5th century bce. These theories, however, have been discarded by most scholars in the light of a more comprehensive knowledge of the ancient Middle East and the abandonment of a theory of gradual evolutionary development that was dominant at the beginning of the 20th century.
An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.
Most Jews share a long-accepted notion that there never was a real break in continuity and that Mosaic-prophetic-priestly Judaism was continued, with only a few modifications, in the work of the Pharisaic and rabbinic sages well into the modern period. Even today the various Jewish groups—whether Orthodox , Conservative , or Reform —all claim direct spiritual descent from the Pharisees and the rabbinic sages. In fact, however, many developments have occurred within so-called normative or Rabbinic Judaism. In any event, the history of Judaism can be divided into the following major periods: biblical Judaism c.
Peace is central to all three faiths. This is reflected historically in their use of similar greetings meaning "peace be upon you": shalom aleichem in Judaism, pax vobiscum in Christianity, and salaam alaikum in Islam. Often, however, the greeting of peace has been meant primarily for members of one's own faith community. Leaders of each religion, from Joshua and King David to Constantine and Richard the Lion-Hearted to Muhammad and Saladin, have engaged in holy wars to spread or defend their communities or empires.
The joining of faith and politics continues to exist in modern times, though manifested in differing ways, as seen in Northern Ireland, South Africa, America, Israel, and the Middle East. Islam is similar to Judaism in its emphasis on practice rather than belief, on law rather than dogma. The primary religious discipline in Judaism and Islam has been religious law; for Christianity it has been theology. Historically, in Judaism and Islam the major debates and disagreements have been among scholars of religious law over matters of religious practice, whereas in Christianity the early disputes and cleavages in the community were over theological beliefs: the nature of the Trinity or the relationship of Jesus' human and divine natures.
Say, We believe in God, and in what has been revealed to us, and in what has been sent down to Abraham and Ismail and Isaac and Jacob and their offspring, and what has been revealed to Moses and Jesus and to all the prophets of our Lord. We make no distinction between them and we submit to Him and obey. Quran The Quran and Islam regard Jews and Christians as children of Abraham and refer to them as "People of the Book," since all three monotheistic faiths descend from the same patrilineage of Abraham.
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Muslims believe that God sent his revelation Torah first to the Jews through the prophet Moses and then to Christians through the prophet Jesus. They recognize many of the biblical prophets, in particular Moses and Jesus, and those are common Muslim names. Another common Muslim name is Mary. In fact, the Virgin Mary's name occurs more times in the Quran than in the New Testament; Muslims also believe in the virgin birth of Jesus.
However, they believe that over time the original revelations to Moses and Jesus became corrupted. The Old Testament is seen as a mixture of God's revelation and human fabrication. The same is true for the New Testament and what Muslims see as Christianity's development of "new" and erroneous doctrines such as that Jesus is the Son of God and that Jesus' death redeemed and atoned for humankind's original sin.
John L. These are offered as a means for IslamiCity to stimulate dialogue and discussion in our continuing mission of being an educational organization. The IslamiCity site may occasionally contain copyrighted material the use of which may not always have been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. IslamiCity is making such material available in its effort to advance understanding of humanitarian, education, democracy, and social justice issues, etc.
We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U. Section , and such and all material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. Islam and Christianity are both derived from Judaism. To say otherwise would be telling a lie. What faith came first? Islam or Judaism? For you to to be truthful, you would have to say Judaism.
I pose a question in the hope you or another could answer for me. How could Islam be a true religion if its foundation is built on the very Jewish faith in which Islam seeks to destroy? Look at it this way With plagiarism's underlining moral intent is deceit; leaving the Quran's canonicity void of truth. What are your thoughts on this theological conception? There is many proof that the only true religion is Islam by almighty Allah, but before that we are all humans and our big religion is humanity.
We should all respect and care for each other wether someone is Hindu, Muslim,Judis,Christian,or Budhisam etc. More than 25, prophets came to teach tawhid across the world. In my understanding Islam is as similar to Christianity as it is to Hinduism as it is to Judaism as it is to Taosim The Muslim-Judeo-Christian discipline is a more politically-correct Orientalism for the 20th and 21st centuries.
The obsession with the false and misleading Muslim-Judeo-Christian dialect is driven by neo-colonialist and economic values more than the search for Truth. All the prophet of Allah are muslims. Jesus is not a christian nor Moses a jew. The only religion before Allah is Islam. Assalaam Alaykum. Do you guys truly believe that Christianity is a monotheistic religion? I don't. To me Christianity is Triotheistic belief. The Two Books are fundamentally different.
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It is misleading to post such an article on this website. You want to expose the Catholic Church as supporting fraud my sister is a devout Catholic, but she attends church back in Poland and decided not to come back here -- another world, another story, not relevant ; a few words:.
My sister was warned by my late father not to get involved before it all happened call it waht you wish , but she got duped: she asked me to go to the church with her as an escort, in spite of that I am not Christian. I am, from certain perspective, not religious, and I do have my own, largley based on the approach of the peoples from the former Polish--Lithuanian Commonwealth, views. In contrast to Christianity, which accepts much of the.
IDEA to you muslims stop doing this He is a christian Christianity, monotheistic?
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What nonsense. I believe like another poster earlier that this article is misleading, maybe even intentionally. You continue on blissfully in your delusions, you will know the truth soon enough? Say: "O people of the Book! Come to common terms as between us and you: that we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with Him; that we erect not from among ourselves Lords and patrons other than Allah.
All the religious scripture Torah,Injeel,vedas,puranas,zoroastrian Avesta,buddhist sutra and granth all say 'believe in one GOD'. I take a strong exception to the remark that Hager was servant of Propeht Abraham.
Infact Hager was wife of propet Abraham and she gave birth to Ismael. It may be noted that Prophet Muhammad comes from the linage of Ismael. This article seems like it is aimed at trying to appease the other faiths, but the bottom line is there are no similarities because Christianity is a pagan religion and both Jews and Christians profess shirk on a regular basis.
There is Words of God He know the hole world there fore who is doing perfectly or actualy. Then most of our world is he dont doing. But God is greater. He know about for us ,thus why when we doing some thing wrong he dont penish us. He gave us good Sorry i will be write So that there will be differece. Esposito is a Christian, may Allah guide him. Some of his statements in this article are incorrect and misleading. He wrote: "Islam and Muslims recognize Judaism and Christianity Muslim do not or should not recognize the so-called Torah of the Jews.
Furthermore, Muslims also believe that Allah revealed to Jesus the Injeel; the New Testament, however, is not the Injeel nor is the Gospel which is considered to be only the first four books of the New Testament. The modern Gospel is only an account of the life of Jesus witnessed by his disciples, it is not a revelation to Jesus. Esposito also wrote: "Muslims believe that what is written in the Old and New Testaments is a corrupted version of the original revelation to Moses and Jesus".
Again, the New Testament is not a revelation to Jesus but only an account written by some of his disciples. Finally, Mr. Esposito exposes himself as the true Christian that he is with the following subtle yet misleading statement: "Jews and Christians trace themselves back to Abraham and his wife Sarah; Muslims, to Abraham and his servant Hagar. This statement implies that Hagar was not married to Abraham but only his servant or concubine.
Muslims believe that Hagar was a legitimate wife of Abraham and his son Ismael was a legitimate heir to the covenant. Zionists however pretend that only the Jews are the legitimate heirs to the Holy Land and have propagated this false belief to the extend that they have changed their own scriptures and cursed Abraham as a adulturer and his son Ismael as a bastard. Muslims have always accepted similarities between these three religions, not to impress them but in the light of existing scriptures, its time that Jews and Christians join hands towards the similarities and stop looking at Islam as an invading missionary movement Say: "O People of the Book!
End of story. Let's stop being the "lambs" and apologists and pacifists. A good article. One important aspect of Allah's communication to humankind through the prophets is that in the Quran, Allah says that a prophet has been sent to every nation, some of whom are mentioned in the Quran; this important message is omitted in this article. So a person who is not a Muslim, Christian or Jew will feel that Islam and Allah is not meant for them.
And for every Ummah a community or a nation , there is a Messenger; when their Messenger comes, the matter will be judged between them with justice, and they will not be wronged. Qur'n And verily, We have sent among every Ummah community, nation a Messenger proclaiming : "Worship Allah Alone , and avoid or keep away from Taghut all false deities, etc.
So travel through the land and see what was the end of those who denied the truth. Some of these Messengers are mentioned in the Qur'n by Allah and some of them are not as the Qur'n says:. And, indeed We have sent Messengers before you O Muhammad P ; of some of them We have related to you their story and of some We have not related to you their story, and it was not given to any Messenger that he should bring a sign except by the Leave of Allah.
So, when comes the Commandment of Allah, the matter will be decided with truth, and the followers of falsehood will then be lost. Assalaamu Alaikum! I do not understand that how come Christianity and Judaism are monothiest as Christrians believe Jeses to be the son of God and Jews believe Moses as the son of God? To arachana. I am shocked that you accepted ISlam but you dont know the basic beliefs of hinduism.
Issues in Jewish Ethics: Ethical Monotheism
I really wonder whther you really need to convert if Hindusim has all the concepts about god you are talking about. In hindu books and scriptures the multiple gods they have , there is no evidence anywhere in history of thier existence at all whatsover. Infertile women are supposed to sit on it. Indian Israeli alliance. Hindusim is alawless religion whose tecahings change from time to time even dayto da. Only Islam declared that Muhammad pbuh is the last prophet the seal of the prophets is Prophet Muhammad pbuh.
Supreme creator takes no son as claimed by Christianity and Judaism. Biblical Christianity will not stop being preached, and Biblical Christianity will continue to be spread. The author's remarks are nothing short of blasphemy against hinduism and he should understand that just as you do not like anybody misrepresenting islam,you must not make wrong interpretations of another faith.
Hinduism is a strictly monotheistic religion and their scriptures have the same verses as our Surah Ikhlas. The culture of feeling God in every one of God's creations is the essence of vegetarianism but it has been physically translated into idols by a few ignorant ones. I come from a very orthodox hindu family and my acceptance of Islam was never in conflict with the philosophy of Hinduism.
Remember,our Holy Quran says that there were prophets sent to each people and tribe,not all of them are listed in the 'people of the book'.